On this page are some answers to Frequently Asked Questions. The information we're offering is a general resource to help you get acquainted with the world of cover song licensing. It is not legal advice or a substitute for counsel from a qualified legal or financial professional.

Music Industry Terms

Cover song

A cover song is a new performance or recording of a song that was previously written, recorded, and released to the public by someone else. Sometimes covers are new versions of older songs that are in the Public Domain, while others are versions of songs still protected by Copyright. For example, when you painstakingly recreate "Roar" in your home studio with Asiatic flutes and a sitar (and without Katy Perry), you've recorded a cover of someone else's copyrighted song. You own the recording, but someone else owns the song itself -- the lyrics, melody and song structure.

Publishers and publishing rights

When you write and record a song, two rights are created: the right to the recording (a.k.a. the master) and the right to the underlying song itself (a.k.a. the publishing).

A music publisher is a company that owns or deals with publishing rights. A music publisher can do things like collect royalties, place songs in films and television shows and match up songwriters with collaborators to create yet more songs. However, a music publisher doesn't have to do any of these things, unless it is required to do so by contract. Indeed, you yourself might be a music publisher without even knowing it, and you may or may not have done any of these things.

If you've written a song and haven't sold off or transferred all of your rights to someone else, you have retained your publishing rights and are a music publisher. If you have transferred your rights to someone else, that someone else is now the music publisher for your songs. Perhaps you've sold off your songs to a traditional publisher like Sony/ATV Music Publishing for a hefty advance, or perhaps you've given a company like Songtrust the exclusive right to administer your publishing rights, i.e., to collect income on your behalf in exchange for a percentage of the profits. Those organizations are also music publishers.

Public performance royalties

The Copyright Act gives copyright owners the right to collect royalties on public performances of their works. Remember that each song you hear has two copyrights: one for the musical composition (the words, melody, song structure and all the things that make up a song) and another for the sound recording (a recorded version of that song). For historical reasons, traditional radio is excepted from the obligation to pay public performance royalties, and radio broadcasters do not pay royalties for the use of sound recordings in the United States. Digital music services, like Sirius XM, Spotify, Pandora, Rdio, etc. do have to pay. Royalties for musical compositions and sound recordings are calculated differently, but share the same premise: anyone can publicly perform a song so long as they pay the royalty.

What is considered a “public performance”?

A public performance occurs anytime a song is played in a publicly-accessible place or to more than a small handful of family and friends. That covers when a song is playing on TV, at a bar, restaurant, sporting event, or even played live when your favorite band comes to town, as well as when a song is broadcast to the world through an Internet stream. An example of what’s not a public performance is you walking down the street with your favorite song playing on a boombox -- and lots of people overhearing it. That is not a public performance.

Who collects the royalties when musical compositions are publicly performed?

ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC are United States performance rights organizations (PROs) that issue blanket licenses to all the compositions they represent. Under U.S. Copyright Law, these organizations must issue performing rights licenses to any music user (potential licensee) who asks for one. When a music user pays for and obtains a performing rights license, the PRO directs the license fees to a fund and eventually pays the collected funds out to its member songwriters and publishers. Each PRO has its own formula, often based on things like plays and market share, for calculating what it pays out to each member.

Who collects the public performance royalties for sound recordings?
  • Non-interactive streaming. Sound Exchange issues licenses for and collects royalties on public performances of sound recordings on behalf of copyright owners (e.g., labels) and artists. They are limited to issuing licenses for public performance of recordings in non interactive services, where the listener doesn’t get to choose the next song played. Sound Exchange is also required to issue licenses to anyone who asks for one.
  • Interactive streaming. Interactive services (that play music on-demand like Spotify) must get licenses directly from the copyright owners, who are often either paid directly by each service or by a digital distributor.
What does this mean for me as an artist?

As a recording artist, you are entitled to compensation in the United States whenever your song is played on satellite radio or streamed in non-interactive services. In order to get paid performance royalties, you'll need to affiliate with Sound Exchange. If you're a songwriter as well, you're also entitled to compensation when you or anyone else publicly performs your composition. In order to get paid, you'll need to affiliate yourself with one of the PROs. In the United States, your choices are ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC.


A copyright is a bundle of legal rights that gives the owner the exclusive right to make copies of the work and to do a variety of other things related to making copies of the work.

In the United States, a copyright gives you six exclusive rights to:
  • Make copies of the work
  • Create derivative works based on the work
  • Distribute the work
  • Publicly perform the work
  • Publicly display the work
  • In the case of a sound recording, publicly perform the work through a digital audio transmission

To better understand the concept of copyright, which is a form of intellectual property, think of the world of real property and imagine that the copyright to your song is actually a six-bedroom house that you own. Since you own the house, you can do what you want with the house or give others permission to do things in the house. Likewise, if you own the copyright to the work, you own exclusive rights to make copies of or use the work -- and you also have the ability to give others permission to do these things.

If you rented one of the rooms of the house to someone, you would still retain ownership of the entire house, and the person renting your house would have to abide by certain rules agreed upon in your rental agreement. Similarly, if you gave someone permission to use your copyright, you would be giving someone a license to use the copyright. You would of course still own the copyright even if you licensed out some of the rights, just as you would still own the house if you rented it to someone else.

If you were to sell your house, the house would be owned by someone else and would no longer be owned by you. Similarly, if you were to transfer all of the exclusive rights under your copyright to someone else, you would be assigning ownership of your copyright and would no longer own it.

Pro tip: Just as you probably would not sell your house or rent your bedroom out to a stranger for free, you may want to make sure that you are compensated when you give someone permission to use your copyrighted work or when you transfer ownership of your copyright to someone else.

Public domain

A public domain work is a work that is not protected by copyright.

When a work is not protected by copyright, others are free to make copies of the work, perform the work, create derivative works based on the work and generally make use of the work without having to obtain a license.

A work's public domain status is based on copyright law, but since the copyright laws vary from country to country, the rules of public domain vary as well.

In the United States, the most common types of public domain works are those which are:
  • Government works and documents
  • Works that have been transferred to the public domain by their creators, and
  • Works that are old.

How old? It can be surprisingly difficult to get an answer to this question, since the copyright laws of the United States have changed over time. The copyright to a work that you create today will last for the duration of your life plus another 70 years, but the rules that apply to the works of yore are not the same rules that apply to music created today. In fact, the rules of public domain are complex enough to take up an entire spreadsheet.

A general rule of thumb under U.S. Copyright Law is that works published prior to 1923 are in the public domain, but in situations where you really, really need an answer and you're not sure about the public domain status of a work, you may consider giving your friendly local copyright attorney a call.

Samples and remixes of recordings

A sample of a recording is a piece of a recording that has been spliced into a new track. Artists and producers sometimes use samples as a creative tool to evoke nostalgia for a certain era, to pay homage to a classic artist or genre, or to juxtapose different pieces of music in order to create a quirky sound. If you're a fan of hip-hop or dance music, or if you've listened to pop music recorded in the last 20 years, you've probably heard more than a few samples.

A remix of a recording is an entire recording, from beginning to end, that has been edited to create a track that sounds different from the original version. Think of it as the same full track recording by the original artist -- same voice, same stem tracks -- but with changes that give the music a different feel. If you're a fan of dance music, whether deep house, dubstep or drum & bass, you're probably familiar with artists that release multiple versions of the same track -- some faster or slower, some with a different tempo or with a longer intro/outtro.

To be clear, when we refer to remixes here, we're talking about a track that contains someone else's recording, albeit with edits and creative changes. If you've re-recorded the track before making said tweaks, you've probably recorded a cover song and should check out our section on cover song licensing.

If you're using a sample of someone else's recording, you'll need to obtain permission from the rights holder that owns the recording (usually a record label), as well as permission from the publisher that owns the song. You'll need to negotiate with both the label and the publisher, who each have the exclusive right to grant or deny permission to anyone who wishes to use samples of the work, as well as the right to set terms and request (or not request) payment for the sample use.

In the case of a remix, you need to negotiate with the label, which has the right to grant or deny permission to create a remix, as well as the right to set terms and either receive payment or pay you for the remix. The publishing, however, can be licensed using the same mechanical license used to distribute cover songs.

While Team Loudr enjoys the occasional remix or sample as much as you probably do, you should be aware that we do NOT handle licensing for samples and remixes. You can use Loudr to sell as many cover songs as you want but our licenses do not extend to the use of sampled recordings or the creation of remixes based on someone else's recording.

If you'd like to release music using samples or if you'd like to make a remix of someone else's recording, you'll need to get a license, a different kind from the license that Loudr currently handles. Try consulting an artist's attorney or a music clearance company. Please feel free to hit us up at support@loudr.fm for a referral.

Interpolations and medleys

What is a medley?

A medley is a series of songs or song segments recorded into a single track by an artist. The songs play one after another and may sometimes overlap. In the case where the songs are owned by someone else, the artist must obtain a license for each song to record them into a medley.

Fun fact: back in the day, "potpourri" was another term for a medley.

As with cover songs, Loudr can help you get the licenses needed to sell your medley online, provided that you've created your own recording from scratch. You'll need to include all of the songs that you covered in your medley when you upload the track to our systems so that the songs get matched to music publishers and get licensed.

What is an interpolation?

An interpolation is a piece of someone else's composition spliced into a new track, rather than a segment of a recording. Think of it as a sample, but one where you record your own version of the song and then mix a piece of it into your own creation rather than dropping in someone else's already-recorded music.

Here are some examples of interpolations:

  • Remember that song "Ghetto Supastar" from the 90's by Pras? The chorus of the song, sung by Mya, uses the melody from the Kenny Rodgers/Dolly Parton song "Islands In The Stream". That melody is an interpolation
  • If you record a cover of One Direction's love song "Story of My Life" but only use that chorus in your own song, where the rest of the lyrics were written by you and not One Direction's songwriters, that would be an interpolation that requires a license.
  • If your original funk song has an instrumental interlude that consists of your funk guitarist performing the melody of the song "Tequila", that interlude is an interpolation.

Unlike medleys and cover songs, Loudr does not license interpolations. You'll need to obtain permission directly from the publisher or publishers that own the song or try consulting an artist's attorney or a music clearance company. Please feel free to hit us up at support@loudr.fm for a referral.

Learn about music rights

Importance of cover song licensing

When you record a cover song, you're recording your own version of someone else's copyrighted song. While you may own the cover of "Roar" that you painstakingly recreated in your home studio with Asiatic flutes and a sitar (and without Katy Perry), someone else still owns the rights to the song itself -- the lyrics, melody and song structure.

Licensing the song enables you to legally sell your song in stores like iTunes and to promote your cover recording without worrying about getting a cease-and-desist notice or waking up to discover that your track has been abruptly yanked from all platforms. It also makes you an awesome person because you'll have done your part to ensure that the original songwriters get paid royalties for their hard work.

I'm a musician. What license do I need to sell my song?

What kind of license do you need? View larger image

Learn more about these music biz terms in our FAQ:

How to copyright your music

Getting a copyright is automatic. In the U.S. your work is copyrighted the moment your original work is fixed in a way that they can be perceived.

What does it mean for a work to be an original?

If your song is entirely your own creation (no sampling, not a mashup, etc.) then it's original. If you've recorded a cover song, your recording is original because it's your version of that song.

What does it mean for a work to be fixed?

For a work to be fixed, it must be able to be seen/heard either directly or with the help of a machine/device. Basically, fixation is just the requirement that the work is either written down or recorded and once you do that, it’s fixed. Voila, you’re a copyright owner!

One song, two types of rights.

There are 2 types of copyrights for music: the copyright for the musical composition and the copyright for the sound recording. The musical composition copyright covers things such as a song’s notes, song structure, melody and lyrics, and may be fixed in the form of sheet music or recorded audio. The sound recording copyright is a particular performance of a song, fixed when it is recorded. In either case, fixation happens when it takes a form that allows another person to read or hear the music.

If you write an original song and record yourself singing it, you will have two copyrights: one for the musical composition and another for the sound recording.

If you record a cover of a song (your original take on a song), you will own a copyright for that recording. Your version of that song will be yours as long as the copyright lasts, provided that you don't sell the rights off to someone.

In this way, there can be many many copyrights for a recording of a song, but only one copyright for the song’s composition.

As the owner of a copyright, you’ll have the right to make copies (manufacture), sell, distribute, and publicly perform it, while excluding others from doing the same.

How long does a copyright last?

In the U.S., copyright term is measured as the author’s life + 70 years after. That’s a really long time. Copyright protection is limited geographically. If you’re not based in the U.S., your country’s copyright length may vary. You can check here.

What if I have collaborators (multiple authors)?

For works that have 2 or more authors, the term lasts for 70 years after the last surviving author’s death.

Do I have to register my copyright?

There is no need to register your copyright with the U.S. Copyright Office for it to be valid.

Why would someone register a copyright if it is not required?

Registration will allow you to sue for copyright infringement. It will also enter the work into the public record, putting the world on notice of your ownership, and get you a nice shiny certificate of registration (not actually shiny, just a piece of paper).

How do I register a copyright?

You need 3 things to register your song with the Copyright Office and have the option of paper filing or online e-filing:

  • a complete application form
  • filing fee (nonrefundable), and
  • a copy or copies of your work to be deposited with the Copyright Office (nonreturnable); number of copies determined by whether or not your song has been released (one copy of your phonorecord if never released before, 2 if released plus any visual artwork you’ve released it with).

How do I get a copyright for my music? View larger image

If you decide to register your work, we highly recommend e-filing because it’s cheaper, faster, has online status tracking, and secure online payment with credit card.

Common uses of music and the licenses needed

Want to use music in your project? Maybe you need background music for a video, want to use that sick guitar solo you found on Soundcloud, or want to create a cover version of one of your favorite songs. If you're making use of music that was not 100% created by and owned by you, you'll need to obtain the proper license(s).

Here are a few common types of music uses (and the licenses they require):

  • Using music in the background of a TV show, movie or Internet video = synchronization license
  • Using music in the background of a video game = synchronization license
  • Playing background music at a bar, concert hall or other business = public performance license
  • Playing music on a terrestrial (regular old) radio broadcast = public performance license
  • Playing music in a streaming service = interactive public performance license
  • Playing music in an Internet radio broadcast = non-interactive public performance license
  • Using a sample of a recording in your new recording = sound recording sample license
  • Using a sample of a composition in your new recording = publishing sample license
  • Recording a cover version of someone else's song = mechanical license*
  • Someone else recording a cover version of YOUR song = mechanical license*
  • Use as background music in a podcast = podcasting license

*If you'd like to record your own cover of a song, Loudr can obtain mechanical licenses on your behalf.

Get started!

The two rights created when you write and record a song

When you write and record a song, two rights are automatically created:

  1. The right to the recording, which is sometimes referred to as the sound recording, the master recording, or "the master".
  2. The right to the underlying song itself, which is sometimes referred to as the song, the composition, or just "the publishing". This right encompasses the words, the song structure, the melody and all the things that make a song a song.

This distinction is an important part of music rights, since "Who owns the master?" and "Who owns the publishing?" are often the first two questions to ask when trying to find out who owns a piece of music. Someone who owns the master may not necessarily be, and in fact often is not, the person who owns the publishing.

Some examples:
  • If you record a cover song of the Lady Gaga song "Bad Romance", Sony/ATV Music Publishing owns the publishing (through its deal with Lady Gaga herself, Ms. Stefani Germanotta) and you own your recording of the song.
  • If you write and record a hit song without the aid of a record label, and Universal Music Publishing manages to get you to sign a publishing deal with them, you would own the master and UMPG would own the publishing.
  • If your best friend Chloe records a cover of one of your songs, your friend Chloe owns her version of your song (the master), but you still own the song itself (the publishing).
Loudr Licensing

About Loudr Licensing

Loudr Licensing is a platform that facilitates mechanical licensing and royalty administration between publishers and anyone who wants to release a cover song. We offer this service at no cost to publishers, and pay publishers 100% of the mechanical royalties they are eligible to collect under the U.S. Copyright Act.

Why you need a license

U.S. copyright law requires you to obtain permission (a license) from the owners of a song when you record a cover of it.

Licensing enables you to legally sell your song in stores like Bandcamp, SoundCloud and iTunes. It allows you to promote your music without worrying about getting a cease-and-desist notice or waking up to discover that your account has been deleted because your track was abruptly yanked from all platforms.

It also makes you an awesome person because you'll have done your part to ensure that the original songwriters get paid royalties for their hard work.

Types of songs that can be licensed through Loudr

You can license almost any song through Loudr, including songs made famous by some of the world's most well-known and loved artists. We'll be able to secure a mechanical license for your cover version as long as the song has already been recorded by another artist and distributed in a permanent form in the United States, like a digital download or CD, not like a YouTube or Vimeo music video.

For Publishers

What is a mechanical license?

A mechanical license is the license needed to make a copy of a song -- that is, the underlying melody, lyrics, and song structure that make up each musical work. We may be contacting you to obtain a mechanical license for a variety of uses, such as when someone creates a cover recording of one of your songs, or when your distribution company attempts to make a recording of your song available in the United States. Please note that the NOI you received refers to a mechanical license for an audio-only usage of your work, and not a video usage, as this would involve a separate a synchronization license.

What is a Notice of Intent?

A Notice of Intent (NOI) is a document that we serve on copyright owners in order to obtain a compulsory license under Section 115 of the Copyright Act. This document is sent when we cannot locate a publisher or when we don't hear back, so that we may help our clients secure timely licenses.

What happens if I don't respond to the NOI before the deadline?

To ensure that release schedules are met, we generally help clients to secure licenses within a specified timeframe. If we are unable to obtain a license from the rights holder within the timeframe, we may also satisfy compulsory licensing requirements under United States Copyright Law by either mailing an NOI to the rights holder or filing a statutory NOI with the U.S. Copyright Office. In these instances, royalties are held until a rights holder can be identified or confirmed.

Why Is An NOI Compulsory?

Loudr is a rights company that provides licensing services to a variety of clients, including artists who seek a license to distribute their cover recording of a song. When a song has been distributed in the US as a physical release or digital download, an artist that wants to record and distribute a cover of that song can obtain a compulsory mechanical license. This is a type of license created by U.S. copyright law that does not require the copyright owner’s consent, but does require notice, ongoing reporting, and royalty payments. Under the current rate set by the U.S. government, the royalty for such a license is $0.091 per unit or download.

Such a license only authorizes the artist to release a cover recording of the song. It does not authorize the artist to use the original copyrighted recording of the song. An artist would need to obtain a license to use the original recording.

Why does the NOI list me as the owner of 0.01% of a song when I actually am the sole rights holder?

When information is not available to confirm the percentage of a song that you own or administer, we may list you as the owner of 0.01% of the song in the NOI. This number is a placeholder to ensure that payments go to the appropriate rights holder. If you see an inaccurate ownership share in your NOI, please email publishers@loudr.fm to update your information and receive royalties based on what you own.

Why does money appear to be missing from my first or subsequent Loudr royalty payments?

Each year, Loudr distributes substantial royalty payments to publishers and songwriters. These payments are based on the use of musical works by Loudr’s clients, which include music distributors, music services, management companies, record labels, and artists.

If we do not have your completed and signed W9 or W8BEN on file, we are required by U.S. tax law to withhold 28% of your royalty payments. We then pay the withheld amount to the IRS, from whom you can claim a refund or credit, if appropriate.

To prevent a standard tax withholding deduction from being applied against royalty payments, please submit a W9 or W8BEN tax form to publishers@loudr.fm.

I'd like to send my catalog data to Loudr to ensure that I receive licenses and payments for all uses of my music. What kind of data formats can Loudr ingest?

Our data team can ingest publishing data in a variety of formats. We appreciate the fine level of detail in CWR files if you are able to export data in CWR format, but if not, we also welcome data in Excel, CSV, or other similar file formats exported from software such as Vistex, Counterpoint, iMaestro, or Music Maestro.

As a minimum, publishing data should contain the following information to help us identify:

  • Song Title
  • Songwriter(s)/Composer(s)
  • Publisher(s)
  • US Mechanical Administrative Share (Percentage You Own)

The following information isn't required, but it's a bonus if you have it as these fields help us better identify uses of your songs:

  • Track Title
  • Names of Artist(s) Who Have Recorded The Song
  • Album Title(s)
  • Record Label(s)
  • ISRC(s) and/or UPC(s)

Got questions? Email publishers@loudr.fm for additional information.

How can I communicate changes in song or catalog ownership?

Add Loudr to your Letter of Direction (LOD) distribution list to ensure that we secure licenses and pay you based on current copyright ownership information. To communicate a change in copyright ownership or administration, send us an LOD that lists the change, together with the applicable catalog data or list and a tax form for the new administrator. We save all LOD/catalog data updates sent to pubdata@loudr.fm and update our records accordingly.

How do I opt in to receive mechanical license requests (NOIs), royalty statements, and other licensing and royalty communications digitally?

Visit the link below and complete your details. We'll send any future NOIs, royalty statements, and other licensing and royalty communications to the email address you provide.

Confirm ownership and opt into digital communications.

How can I stop receiving NOIs and sign up for direct licensing?

We prefer to work publishers directly when possible, so if you're interested in learning more about Loudr, we hope you'll contact us at biz@loudr.fm.

Company and Brand

How Loudr is related to Joypad Records

Joypad Records was an independent San Francisco-based label, providing copyright clearance, digital distribution, and royalty reporting for video game music and cover songs. Joypad's mission was to be a one-stop destination for anyone wanting to sell their game OST or game cover songs. Joypad Records combined with a unique online bundling platform called Bundle Dragon and formed Loudr in 2013, although game music continues to hold a special place in our hearts.

How Loudr is related to A Cappella Records

A Cappella Records was a record label geared around a cappella music. With the number of cover songs coming out of the scene, it was clear that copyright clearance, digital distribution, and royalty reporting were all things that the a cappella community desperately needed. ACR's mission was to be a one-stop destination for anyone wanting to sell a cappella album with a minimal amount of hassle and legal wrangling. The ACR team has been at the core of Loudr's creation and the a cappella spirit is still live and well in our office - we make quite a bit of musical mouth-noise while working!

How Loudr is related to re:discover Inc.

re:discover Inc. is our official business-type name. We used to be called "A Cappella Records Inc." back in the day, but decided to go for something a little more inclusive of ALL types of music. We like the idea of re-discovering music through cover songs and original track releases, and although Loudr is our main product these days, the name remains a reminder of our greater goal.